text-orientation в CSS


Содержание

Выравнивание текста в CSS

Выравнивание текста — такая необходимость возникает очень часто. В CSS это реализуется с помощью соответствующих атрибутов и их значений. Что это за атрибуты, какие у них существуют значения и, наконец, как делается выравнивание текста в CSS с их помощью мы и рассмотрим в этом уроке.

Горизонтальное выравнивание в CSS

Для того, чтобы выровнять текст по горизонтали в CSS используется атрибут «text-align» со следующими значениями:

  • text-align: left;
  • text-align: right;
  • text-align: center;
  • text-align: justify;
  • left — выравнивание текста по левому краю;
  • right — горизонтальное выравнивание текста по правому краю;
  • center — расположение текста по центру;
  • justify — выравнивание по левому и правому краю одновременно (по ширине).

Вертикальное выравнивание в CSS

Для того, чтобы выровнять текст по вертикали в CSS используется атрибут «vertical-align» со следующими значениями:

  • vertical-align: top;
  • vertical-align: middle;
  • vertical-align: bottom;
  • top — выравнивание текста по верхнему краю;
  • middle — вертикальное выравнивание текста по центру;
  • bottom — выравнивание текста по нижнему краю.

Вот, пожалуй, и все. Выравнивание текста в CSS не должно вызвать каких-либо затруднений. Как видите, ничего сложного здесь нет. Спасибо за внимание и до встречи в других уроках!

css властивість text-orientation

Властивість text-orientation визначає орієнтацію текстових символів у рядку.

Властивість text-orientation має лише ефект у вертикальному режимі, тобто коли для writing-mode задано значення відмінне від horizontal-tb .

Це корисно для друку тексту мовами, які пишуться вертикально, а також для створення вертикальних заголовків таблиць.

Значення властивості sideways працює тільки у брайзері Firefox починаючи з версії 44.0.

Синтакс

Властивість text-orientation може отримувати 3 значення:

Поворот символів на 90°. Без задання.

Показує горизонтальні символи природно (вертикально), а також гліфи для них. Зауважте, що це ключове слово призводить до того, що всі символи розглядаються як «зліва направо»: використовується значення напряму примусово становити ltr .

Весь текст буде накладено в бік (повернутий на 90° за годинниковою стрілкою), як у горизонтальному розташуванні.

Text-orientation Property CSS3

about 3 years ago

The text-orientation CSS property defines the orientation of the text in every line.

This property solely has a control in vertical mode, that’s once writing-mode isn’t horizontal-tb. it’s helpful to manage the show of writing in languages victimization vertical script, however conjointly to contend with vertical table headers

mixed :ends up in having characters for horizontal-only scripts being turned 90°

upright: results in having characters for horizontal-only scripts to be ordered out naturally (upright). Note that this keyword lead all characters to be thought-about as ltr: the used price of direction is ltr, regardless of the user might attempt to set it to.

sideways: This keyword results in having characters arranged out like if they were arranged out horizontally, however with the entire line revolved 90° to the correct if writing-mode is vertical-rl or to the left, if it’s vertical-lr.

CSS Writing Modes Level 3

W3C Proposed Recommendation, 24 October 2020

Abstract

CSS Writing Modes Level 3 defines CSS support for various writing modes and their combinations, including left-to-right and right-to-left text ordering as well as horizontal and vertical orientations.

CSS is a language for describing the rendering of structured documents (such as HTML and XML) on screen, on paper, etc.

Status of this document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at https://www.w3.org/TR/.

This document was produced by the CSS Working Group as a Proposed Recommendation.

This document is intended to become a W3C Recommendation. This document will remain a Proposed Recommendation at least until 22 November 2020 in order to ensure the opportunity for review from the W3C Membership and other interested parties.

GitHub Issues are preferred for discussion of this specification. When filing an issue, please put the text “css-writing-modes” in the title, preferably like this: “[css-writing-modes] …summary of comment…”. All issues and comments are archived, and there is also a historical archive. Advisory Committee Representatives should consult their WBS questionnaires.

Publication as a Proposed Recommendation does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

This document was produced by a group operating under the W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

This document is governed by the 1 March 2020 W3C Process Document.

For changes since the last draft, see the Changes section.

1. Introduction to Writing Modes

CSS Writing Modes Level 3 defines CSS features to support for various international writing modes, such as left-to-right (e.g. Latin or Indic), right-to-left (e.g. Hebrew or Arabic), bidirectional (e.g. mixed Latin and Arabic) and vertical (e.g. Asian scripts).

A in CSS is determined by the writing-mode, direction, and text-orientation properties. It is defined primarily in terms of its inline base direction and block flow direction:

Latin-based writing mode

Mongolian-based writing mode

Han-based writing mode

The is the primary direction in which content is ordered on a line and defines on which sides the “start” and “end” of a line are. The direction property specifies the inline base direction of a box and, together with the unicode-bidi property and the inherent directionality of any text content, determines the ordering of inline-level content within a line.

The is the direction in which block-level boxes stack and the direction in which line boxes stack within a block container. The writing-mode property determines the block flow direction.

The determines if text should apply typographic conventions specific to vertical flow for vertical scripts. This concept distinguishes vertical flow for vertical scripts from rotated horizontal flow.

A is one with horizontal lines of text, i.e. a downward or upward block flow. A is one with vertical lines of text, i.e. a leftward or rightward block flow.

These terms should not be confused with (which is a downward or upward block flow) and (which is leftward or rightward block flow). To avoid confusion, CSS specifications avoid this latter set of terms.

Writing systems typically have one or two native writing modes. Some examples are:

  • Latin-based systems are typically written using a left-to-right inline direction with a downward (top-to-bottom) block flow direction.
  • Arabic-based systems are typically written using a right-to-left inline direction with a downward (top-to-bottom) block flow direction.
  • Mongolian-based systems are typically written using a top-to-bottom inline direction with a rightward (left-to-right) block flow direction.
  • Han-based systems are commonly written using a left-to-right inline direction with a downward (top-to-bottom) block flow direction, or a top-to-bottom inline direction with a leftward (right-to-left) block flow direction. Many magazines and newspapers will mix these two writing modes on the same page.

The text-orientation component of the writing mode controls the glyph orientation.

See Unicode Technical Note #22 [UTN22] (HTML version) for a more in-depth introduction to writing modes and vertical text.

1.1. Module Interactions

This module replaces and extends the unicode-bidi and direction features defined in [CSS2] sections 8.6 and 9.10. The interaction of its features with other text operations in setting lines of text is described in CSS Text 3 § Text Processing Order of Operations.

The computed values of the writing-mode, direction, and text-orientation properties (even on elements to which these properties themselves don’t apply [CSS-CASCADE-4]) are broadly able to influence the computed values of other, unrelated properties through calculations such as the computation of font-relative lengths or the cascade of flow-relative properties which purposefully depend on the computed writing mode or on font metrics that can depend on the writing mode .

1.2. Value Types and Terminology

This specification follows the CSS property definition conventions from [CSS2]. Value types not defined in this specification are defined in CSS Values & Units [CSS-VALUES-3]. Other CSS modules may expand the definitions of these value types.

In addition to the property-specific values listed in their definitions, all properties defined in this specification also accept the CSS-wide keywords keywords as their property value. For readability they have not been repeated explicitly.

Other important terminology and concepts used in this specification are defined in [CSS2] and [CSS-TEXT-3].

2. Inline Direction and Bidirectionality

While the characters in most scripts are written from left to right, certain scripts are written from right to left. In some documents, in particular those written with the Arabic or Hebrew script, and in some mixed-language contexts, text in a single (visually displayed) block may appear with mixed directionality. This phenomenon is called , or «bidi» for short.

The Unicode standard (Unicode Standard Annex #9) defines a complex algorithm for determining the proper ordering of bidirectional text. The algorithm consists of an implicit part based on character properties, as well as explicit controls for embeddings and overrides. CSS relies on this algorithm to achieve proper bidirectional rendering.

The HTML specifications ([HTML401], section 8.2, and [HTML] section 14.3.5) define bidirectionality behavior for HTML elements.

If a document language provides markup features to control bidi, authors and users should use those features instead and not specify CSS rules to override them.

2.1. Specifying Directionality: the direction property

Name:
Value: ltr | rtl
Initial: ltr
Applies to: all elements
Inherited: yes
Percentages: n/a
Computed value: specified value
Canonical order: n/a
Animation type: not animatable

Because HTML UAs can turn off CSS styling, we recommend HTML authors to use the HTML dir attribute and element to ensure correct bidirectional layout in the absence of a style sheet. Authors should not use direction in HTML documents.

This property specifies the inline base direction or directionality of any bidi paragraph, embedding, isolate, or override established by the box. (See unicode-bidi.) In addition, it informs the ordering of table column layout, the direction of horizontal overflow, and the default alignment of text within a line, and other layout effects that depend on the box’s inline base direction.

Values for this property have the following meanings:

This value sets inline base direction (bidi directionality) to line-left-to-line-right. This value sets inline base direction (bidi directionality) to line-right-to-line-left.

The direction property has no effect on bidi reordering when specified on inline boxes whose unicode-bidi value is normal, because the box does not open an additional level of embedding with respect to the bidirectional algorithm.

The direction property, when specified for table column boxes, is not inherited by cells in the column since columns are not the ancestors of the cells in the document tree. Thus, CSS cannot easily capture the «dir» attribute inheritance rules described in [HTML401], section 11.3.2.1.

2.2. Embeddings and Overrides: the unicode-bidi property

Name:
Value: normal | embed | isolate | b >| isolate-overr >| plaintext
Initial: normal
Applies to: all elements, but see prose
Inherited: no
Percentages: n/a
Computed value: specified value
Canonical order: per grammar
Animation type: not animatable

Because HTML UAs can turn off CSS styling, we recommend HTML authors to use the HTML dir attribute, element, and appropriate distinction of text-level vs. grouping-level HTML element types to ensure correct bidirectional layout in the absence of a style sheet. Authors should not use unicode-bidi in HTML documents.

The following informative table summarizes the box-internal and box-external effects of unicode-bidi:

Effect of non-normal values of unicode-bidi on inline boxes

Outside
strong neutral
Inside scoped embed isolate
override bidi-override isolate-override
plaintext plaintext

Values for this property have the following (normative) meanings:

The box does not open an additional level of embedding with respect to the bidirectional algorithm. For inline boxes, implicit reordering works across box boundaries. If the box is inline, this value creates a by opening an additional level of embedding with respect to the b >This value has no effect on boxes that are not inline.

On an inline box, this its contents. This is similar to a directional embedding (and increases the embedding level accordingly) except that each sequence of inline-level boxes uninterrupted by any block boundary or forced paragraph break is treated as an :

    the content within the sequence is ordered as if ins >forced paragraph breaks within the box still create a corresponding break in the containing paragraph.

This value has no effect on boxes that are not inline.

This value puts the box’s immediate inline content in a . For an inline, this means that the box acts like a directional embedding in the bidirectional algorithm, except that reordering within it is strictly in sequence according to the direction property; the implicit part of the bidirectional algorithm is ignored. For a block container, the override is applied to an anonymous inline box that surrounds all of its content. This combines the isolation behavior of isolate with the directional overr >isolate , but within the box content is ordered as if bidi-override were specified. It effectively nests a directional override inside an isolated sequence.

This value behaves as isolate except that for the purposes of the Unicode bidirectional algorithm, the base directionality of each of the box’s bidi paragraphs (if a block container) or isolated sequences (if an inline) is determined by following the heuristic in rules P2 and P3 of the Unicode bidirectional algorithm (rather than by using the direction property of the box).

Following Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm clause HL3 [UAX9], values other than normal effectively insert the corresponding Unicode bidi control codes into the text stream at the start and end of the inline element before passing the paragraph to the Unicode bidirectional algorithm for reordering. (See § 2.4.2 CSS–Unicode Bidi Control Translation, Text Reordering.)

Bidi control codes injected by unicode-bidi at the start/end of display: inline boxes

unicode-b >direction value
ltr rtl
start end start end
normal
embed LRE (U+202A) PDF (U+202C) RLE (U+202B) PDF (U+202C)
isolate LRI (U+2066) PDI (U+2069) RLI (U+2067) PDI (U+2069)
bidi-override* LRO (U+202D) PDF (U+202C) RLO (U+202E) PDF (U+202C)
isolate-override* FSI,LRO (U+2068,U+202D) PDF,PDI (U+202C,U+2069) FSI,RLO (U+2068,U+202E) PDF,PDI (U+202C,U+2069)
plaintext FSI (U+2068) PDI (U+2069) FSI (U+2068) PDI (U+2069)
* The LRO/RLO+PDF pairs are also applied to the root inline box of a block container if these values of unicode-b >block container .

Because the unicode-bidi property does not inherit, setting bidi-override or plaintext on a block box will not affect any descendant blocks. Therefore these values are best used on blocks and inlines that do not contain any block-level structures.

Because the Unicode algorithm has a limit of 125 levels of embedding, care should be taken not to overuse unicode-b >unicode-bidi: isolate is preferred to keep the element together in case the display is changed to inline (see example below).

2.3. Example of Bidirectional Text

The following example shows an XML document with bidirectional text. It illustrates an important design principle: document language designers should take bidi into account both in the language proper (elements and attributes) and in any accompanying style sheets. The style sheets should be designed so that bidi rules are separate from other style rules, and such rules should not be overridden by other style sheets so that the document language’s bidi behavior is preserved.

In this example, lowercase letters stand for inherently left-to-right characters and uppercase letters represent inherently right-to-left characters. The text stream is shown below in logical backing store order.

Since this is arbitrary XML, the style sheet is responsible for setting the writing direction. This is the style sheet:

If the line length is long, the formatting of this text might look like this:

The first element is a block with a right-to-left base direction, the second element is a block with a left-to-right base direction. The

s are blocks that inherit the base direction from their parents. Thus, the first two

s are read starting at the top right, the final three are read starting at the top left.

The element is inline-level, and since its value for unicode-bidi is normal (the initial value), it has no effect on the ordering of the text.

The element, on the other hand, creates an isolated sequence with the given internal directionality. Note that this causes HEBREW18 to be to the right of english19 .

If lines have to be broken, the same text might format like this:

Notice that because HEBREW18 must be read before english19 , it is on the line above english19 . Just breaking the long line from the earlier formatting would not have worked.

Note also that the first syllable from english19 might have fit on the previous line, but hyphenation of left-to-right words in a right-to-left context, and vice versa, is usually suppressed to avoid having to display a hyphen in the middle of a line.

2.4. Applying the Bidirectional Reordering Algorithm

User agents that support bidirectional text must apply the Unicode bidirectional algorithm to every sequence of inline-level boxes uninterrupted by any block boundary or “bidi type B” . This sequence forms the unit in the bidirectional algorithm.

2.4.1. Bidi Paragraph Embedding Levels

In CSS, the paragraph embedding level must be set (following UAX9 clause HL1) according to the direction property of the paragraph’s containing block rather than by the heuristic given in steps P2 and P3 of the Unicode algorithm.

There is, however, one exception: when the computed unicode-bidi of the paragraph’s containing block is plaintext, the Unicode heuristics in P2 and P3 are used as described in [UAX9], without the HL1 override.

2.4.2. CSS–Unicode Bidi Control Translation, Text Reordering

The final order of characters within each bidi paragraph is the same as if the bidi control codes had been added as described for unicode-bidi (above), markup had been stripped, and the resulting character sequence had been passed to an implementation of the Unicode bidirectional algorithm for plain text that produced the same line-breaks as the styled text.

Note that bidi control codes in the source text are still honored, and might not correspond to the document tree structure. This can split inlines or interfere with bidi start/end control pairing in interesting ways.

2.4.3. Bidi Treatment of Atomic Inlines

In this process, replaced elements with display: inline are treated as neutral characters, unless their unicode-bidi property is either embed or bidi-override, in which case they are treated as strong characters in the direction specified for the element. (This is so that, in case the replaced element falls back to rendering inlined text content, its bidi effect on the surrounding text is consistent with its replaced rendering.)

All other atomic inline-level boxes are treated as neutral characters always.

2.4.4. Paragraph Breaks Within Embeddings and Isolates

If an inline box is broken around a bidi paragraph boundary (e.g. if split by a block or forced paragraph break), then the HL3 bidi control codes assigned to the end of the box are also added before the interruption and the codes assigned to the start of the box are also added after it. (In other words, any embedding levels, isolates, or overrides started by the box are closed at the paragraph break and reopened on the other side of it.)

For example, where
is a forced paragraph break the bidi ordering is identical between

for all values of unicode-bidi on inline elements and .

Note that this behavior is applied by CSS for CSS-declared bidi controls applied to the box tree; it does not apply to Unicode’s bidi formatting controls, which are defined to terminate their effect at the end of the bidi paragraph.

2.4.5. Reordering-induced Box Fragmentation

Since bidi reordering can split apart and reorder text that is logically contiguous, bidirectional text can cause an inline box containing such text to be split and its fragments reordered within a line.

For each line box, UAs must take the fragments of each inline box and assign the margins, borders, and padding in visual order (not logical order). The start-most fragment on the first line box in which the box appears has the start edge’s margin, border, and padding; and the end-most fragment on the last line box in which the box appears has the end edge’s margin, border, and padding. For example, in the horizontal-tb writing mode:

  • When the parent’s direction property is ltr, the left-most box fragment on the first line box in which the box appears has the left margin, left border and left padding, and the right-most box fragment on the last line box in which the box appears has the right padding, right border and right margin.
  • When the parent’s direction property is rtl, the right-most fragment of the first line box in which the box appears has the right padding, right border and right margin, and the left-most fragment of the last line box in which the box appears has the left margin, left border and left padding.

Analogous rules hold for vertical writing modes.

The box-decoration-break property can override this behavior to draw box decorations on both sides of each fragment. [CSS3-BREAK]

3. Vertical Writing Modes

In addition to extensions to CSS2.1’s support for bidirectional text, this module introduces the rules and properties needed to support vertical text layout in CSS.

3.1. Introduction to Vertical Writing

This subsection is non-normative.

Unlike languages that use the Latin script which are primarily laid out horizontally, Asian languages such as Chinese and Japanese can be laid out vertically. The Japanese example below shows the same text laid out horizontally and vertically. In the horizontal case, text is read from left to right, top to bottom. For the vertical case, the text is read top to bottom, right to left. Indentation from the left edge in the left-to-right horizontal case translates to indentation from the top edge in the top-to-bottom vertical case.

Comparison of vertical and horizontal Japanese: iBunko application (iOS)

For Chinese and Japanese lines are ordered either right to left or top to bottom, while for Mongolian and Manchu lines are ordered left to right.

The change from horizontal to vertical writing can affect not just the layout, but also the typesetting. For example, the position of a punctuation mark within its spacing box can change from the horizontal to the vertical case, and in some cases alternate glyphs are used.

Vertical text that includes Latin script text or text from other scripts normally displayed horizontally can display that text in a number of ways. For example, Latin words can be rotated sideways, or each letter can be oriented upright:

Examples of Latin in vertical Japanese: Daijirin Viewer 1.4 (iOS)

In some special cases such as two-digit numbers in dates, text is fit compactly into a single vertical character box:

Mac Fan, December 2010, p.49

Layouts often involve a mixture of vertical and horizontal elements:

Mixture of vertical and horizontal elements

Vertical text layouts also need to handle bidirectional text layout; clockwise-rotated Arabic, for example, is laid out bottom-to-top.

3.2. Block Flow Direction: the writing-mode property

Name:
Value: horizontal-tb | vertical-rl | vertical-lr
Initial: horizontal-tb
Applies to: All elements except table row groups, table column groups, table rows, table columns, ruby base container, ruby annotation container
Inherited: yes
Percentages: n/a
Computed value: specified value
Canonical order: n/a
Animation type: not animatable

This property specifies whether lines of text are laid out horizontally or vertically and the direction in which blocks progress. Possible values:

Top-to-bottom block flow direction. Both the writing mode and the typographic mode are horizontal. Right-to-left block flow direction. Both the writing mode and the typographic mode are vertical. Left-to-right block flow direction. Both the writing mode and the typographic mode are vertical.

The writing-mode property specifies the block flow direction, which determines the ordering direction of block-level boxes in a block formatting context; the ordering direction of line boxes in a block container that contains inlines; the ordering direction of rows in a table; etc. By virtue of determining the stacking direction of line boxes, the writing-mode property also determines whether the line boxes’ orientation (and thus the writing mode) is horizontal or vertical. The text-orientation property then determines how text is laid out within the line box.

The content of replaced elements do not rotate due to the writing mode: images and external content such as from s, for example, remain upright, and the default object size of 300px×150px does not re-orient. However embedded replaced content involving text (such as MathML content or form elements) should match the replaced element’s writing mode and line orientation if the UA supports such a vertical writing mode for the replaced content.

In the following example, two block elements (1 and 3) separated by an image (2) are presented in various flow writing modes.

Here is a diagram of horizontal writing mode ( writing-mode: horizontal-tb ):

Here is a diagram for the right-to-left vertical writing mode commonly used in East Asia ( writing-mode: vertical-rl ):

And finally, here is a diagram for the left-to-right vertical writing mode used for Manchu and Mongolian ( writing-mode: vertical-lr ):

In the following example, some form controls are rendered inside a block with vertical-rl writing mode. The form controls are rendered to match the writing mode.

If a box has a different writing-mode value than its parent box (i.e. nearest ancestor without display: contents):

  • If the box would otherwise become an in-flow box with a computed display of inline, its display computes instead to inline-block.
  • If the box is a block container, then it establishes an independentblock formatting context.
  • More generally, if its specified inner display type is flow, then its computed inner display type becomes flow-root. [CSS-DISPLAY-3]

As all other inherited CSS properties do, the writing-mode property inherits to SVG elements inlined (rather than linked) into the source document. This could cause unintentional side effects when, for example, an SVG image designed only for horizontal flow was embedded into a vertical flow document.

Authors can prevent this from happening by adding the following rule:

3.2.1. Obsolete SVG1.1 writing-mode Values

SVG1.1 [SVG11] defines some additional values: lr , lr-tb , rl , rl-tb , tb , and tb-rl .


These values are obsolete in any context except SVG1 documents and are therefore optional for non-SVG UAs.

3.2.1.1. Supporting SVG1.1 writing-mode values in CSS syntax

UAs that wish to support these values in the context of CSS must compute them as follows:

Mapping of Obsolete SVG1.1 writing-mode values to modern CSS

Specified Computed
lr horizontal-tb
lr-tb
rl
rl-tb
tb vertical-rl
tb-rl

The SVG1.1 values were also present in an older of the CSS writing-mode specification, which is obsoleted by this specification. The additional tb-lr value of that revision is replaced by vertical-lr.

3.2.1.2. Supporting SVG1.1 writing-mode values in presentational attributes

In order to support legacy content with presentational attributes, and to allow authors to create documents that support older clients, SVG UAs must add the following style sheet rules to their default UA stylesheet:

4. Inline-level Alignment

When different kinds of inline-level content are placed together on a line, the baselines of the content and the settings of the vertical-align property control how they are aligned in the transverse direction of the line box. This section discusses what baselines are, how to find them, and how they are used together with the vertical-align property to determine the alignment of inline-level content.

4.1. Introduction to Baselines

This section is non-normative.

A is a line along the inline axis of a line box along which individual glyphs of text are aligned. Baselines guide the design of glyphs in a font (for example, the bottom of most alphabetic glyphs typically align with the alphabetic baseline), and they guide the alignment of glyphs from different fonts or font sizes when typesetting.

Alphabetic text in two font sizes with the baseline and em-boxes

Different writing systems prefer different baseline tables.

Preferred baselines in various writing systems

A well-constructed font contains a , which indicates the position of one or more baselines within the font’s design coordinate space. (The design coordinate space is scaled with the font size.)

In a well-designed mixed-script font, the glyphs are positioned in the coordinate space to harmonize with one another when typeset together. The baseline table is then constructed to match the shape of the glyphs, each baseline positioned to match the glyphs from its preferred scripts.

The baseline table is a property of the font, and the positions of the various baselines apply to all glyphs in the font.

Different baseline tables can be provided for alignment in horizontal and vertical text. UAs should use the vertical tables in vertical typographic modes and the horizontal tables otherwise.

4.2. Text Baselines

In this specification, only the following baselines are considered:

alphabetic The , which typically aligns with the bottom of uppercase Latin glyphs. central The , which typically crosses the center of the em box. If the font is missing this baseline, it is assumed to be halfway between the ascender (over) and descender (under) edges of the em box.

In vertical typographic mode, the central baseline is used as the dominant baseline when text-orientation is mixed or upright. Otherwise the alphabetic baseline is used.

A future CSS module will deal with baselines in more detail and allow the choice of other dominant baselines and alignment options.

4.3. Atomic Inline Baselines

If an atomic inline (such as an inline-block, inline-table, or replaced inline element) does not have a baseline, then the UA synthesizes a baseline table thus:

alphabetic The alphabetic baseline is assumed to be at the under margin edge. central The central baseline is assumed to be halfway between the under and over margin edges of the box.

The vertical-align property in [CSS2] defines the baseline of inline-table and inline-block boxes with some exceptions.

4.4. Baseline Alignment

The (which can change based on the typographic mode) is used in CSS for alignment in two cases:

  • Aligning glyphs from different fonts within the same inline box. The glyphs are aligned by matching up the positions of the dominant baseline in their corresponding fonts.
  • Aligning a child inline-level box within its parent. For the vertical-align value of baseline , child is aligned to the parent by matching the parent’s dominant baseline to the same baseline in the child. (E.g. if the parent’s dominant baseline is alphabetic, then the child’s alphabetic baseline is matched to the parent’s alphabetic baseline, even if the child’s dominant baseline is something else.) For values of sub , super , , and

, the baselines are aligned as for baseline , but the child is shifted according to the offset given by its vertical-align value.

Given following sample markup:

And the following style rule:

The baseline tables of the parent ( .outer ) and the child ( .inner ) will not match up due to the font size difference. Since the dominant baseline is the alphabetic baseline, the child box is aligned to its parent by matching up their alphabetic baselines.

If we assign vertical-align: super to the .inner element from the example above, the same rules are used to align the .inner child to its parent; the only difference is in addition to the baseline alignment, the child is shifted to the superscript position.

5. Introduction to Vertical Text Layout

Each writing system has one or more native orientations. Modern scripts can therefore be classified into three orientational categories:

Scripts that have horizontal, but not vertical, native orientation. Includes: Latin, Arabic, Hebrew, Devanagari Scripts that have vertical, but not horizontal, native orientation. Includes: Mongolian, Phags Pa Scripts that have both vertical and horizontal native orientation. Includes: Han, Hangul, Japanese Kana

A is one that has a native vertical orientation: i.e. one that is either vertical-only or that is bi-orientational. A is one that has a native horizontal orientation: i.e. one that is either horizontal-only or that is bi-orientational . (See Appendix A for a categorization of scripts by native orientation.)

In modern typographic systems, all glyphs are assigned a horizontal orientation, which is used when laying out text horizontally. To lay out vertical text, the UA needs to transform the text from its horizontal orientation. This transformation is the , and there are two types:

rotate Rotate the glyph from horizontal to vertical translate Translate the glyph from horizontal to vertical

Scripts with a native vertical orientation have an intrinsic bi-orientational transform, which orients them correctly in vertical text: most CJK (Chinese/Japanese/Korean) characters translate, that is, they are always upright. Characters from other scripts, such as Mongolian, rotate.

Scripts without a native vertical orientation can be either rotated (set sideways) or translated (set upright): the transform used is a stylistic preference depending on the text’s usage, rather than a matter of correctness. The text-orientation property’s mixed and upright values are provided to specify rotation vs. translation of horizontal-only text.

5.1. Orienting Text: the text-orientation property

Name:
Value: mixed | upright | sideways
Initial: mixed
Applies to: all elements except table row groups, rows, column groups, and columns
Inherited: yes
Percentages: n/a
Computed value: specified value
Canonical order: n/a
Animation type: not animatable

This property specifies the orientation of text within a line. Current values only have an effect in vertical typographic modes: the property has no effect on boxes in horizontal typographic modes .

Values have the following meanings:

This value is typical for layout of dominantly vertical-script text.

In vertical writing modes, typographic character units from horizontal-only scripts are typeset upright, i.e. in their standard horizontal orientation. Typographic character units from vertical scripts are typeset with their intrinsic orientation and shaped normally. See Vertical Orientations for further details.

This value causes the used value of direction to be ltr, and for the purposes of bidi reordering, causes all characters to be treated as strong LTR.

Note: The used value, rather than the computed value, of direction is influenced so that rtl can inherit properly into any descendants (such as the contents of a horizontal inline-block) where this directional override does not apply.

In vertical writing modes, this causes all text to be typeset sideways, as if in a horizontal layout, but rotated 90° clockwise.

Changing the value of this property may affect inline-level alignment. Refer to Text Baselines for more details.

UAs may accept as a value that computes to sideways if needed for backward compatibility reasons.

5.1.1. Vertical Typesetting and Font Features

When typesetting text in vertical-rl and vertical-lr modes, text is typeset either “upright” or “sideways” as defined below:

upright typesetting Typographic character units are indiv >vert feature must be enabled.) Furthermore, characters from horizontal cursive scripts (such as Arabic) are shaped in their isolated forms when typeset upright.

Note that even when typeset “upright”, some glyphs should appear rotated. For example, dashes and enclosing punctuation should be oriented relative to the inline axis. In OpenType, this is typically handled by glyph substitution, although not all fonts have alternate glyphs for all relevant codepoints. (East Asian fonts usually provide alternates for East Asian codepoints, but Western fonts typically lack any vertical typesetting features and East Asian fonts typically lack vertical substitutions for Western codepoints.) Unicode published draft data on which characters should appear sideways as the SVO property in this data file; however, this property has been abandoned for the current revision of [UAX50].

Typographic character units which are classified as Tr or Tu in [UAX50] are expected to have alternate glyphs or positioning for typesetting upright in vertical text. In the case of Tr characters, if such vertical alternate glyphs are missing from the font, the UA may wish to [RFC6919] (but is not expected to) synthesize the missing glyphs by typesetting them sideways etc.

sideways typesetting Typographic character units typeset as a run rotated 90° clockwise from their upright orientation, using horizontal metrics and composition, and vertical typesetting features are not used. However, if the font has features meant to be enabled for sideways text that is typeset in vertical lines (e.g. to adjust brush stroke angles or alignment), those features are used. (An example of such a feature would be the proposed vrtr OpenType font feature.)

5.1.2. Mixed Vertical Orientations

[UAX50] defines the Vertical_Orientation property for the default glyph orientation of mixed-orientation vertical text. When text-orientation is mixed, the UA must determine the orientation of each typographic character unit by its Vertical_Orientation property: typeseting it upright if its orientation property is U , Tu , or Tr ; or typesetting it sideways (90° clockwise from horizontal) if its orientation property is R .

Note that UAX50 does not handle scripts that rotate -90° in vertical contexts, so they will not be typeset correctly with mixed orientation. The sideways-lr value in Level 4, however, can correctly display such scripts.

The OpenType vrt2 feature, which is intended for mixed-orientation typesetting, is not used by CSS. It delegates the responsibility for orienting glyphs to the font designer. CSS instead dictates the orientation through [UAX50] and orients glyphs by typesetting them sideways or upright as appropriate.

5.1.3. Obsolete: the SVG1.1 glyph-orientation-vertical property

Name:
Value: auto | 0deg | 90deg | 0 | 90
Initial: n/a
Applies to: n/a
Inherited: n/a
Percentages: n/a
Computed value: n/a
Canonical order: n/a
Animatable: n/a
Shorthand glyph-orientation-vertical value Longhand text-orientation value
auto mixed
0deg upright
0 upright
90deg sideways
90 sideways

UAs must ignore and treat as invalid any other values for the glyph-orientation-vertical property; and treat as invalid the glyph-orientation-horizontal property in its entirety.

Note: The 180deg and 270deg values, the radian and gradian values, and the glyph-orientation-horizontal property are not mapped because they have no known use cases nor significant amounts of dependent content, and are therefore not part of CSS, and have been likewise dropped from SVG.

6. Abstract Box Terminology

CSS2.1 [CSS2] defines the box layout model of CSS in detail, but only for the horizontal-tb writing mode. Layout is analogous in writing modes other than horizontal-tb ; however directional and dimensional terms in CSS2.1 must be abstracted and remapped appropriately.

This section defines abstract directional and dimensional terms and their mappings in order to define box layout for other writing modes, and to provide terminology for future specs to define their layout concepts abstractly. (The next section explains how to apply them to CSS2.1 layout calculations and how to handle orthogonal flows.) Although they derive from the behavior of text, these abstract mappings exist even for boxes that do not contain any line boxes: they are calculated directly from the values of the writing-mode and direction properties.

There are three sets of directional terms in CSS:

Interpreted relative to the page, independent of writing mode. The are , , , and . Interpreted relative to the flow of content. The flow-relative directions are start and end, or block-start, block-end, inline-start, and inline-end if the dimension is also ambiguous. Interpreted relative to the orientation of the line box. The line-relative directions are line-left, line-right, line-over, and line-under.

The are and , which correspond to measurements along the () and (), respectively. Abstract dimensions are identical in both flow-relative and line-relative terms, so there is only one set of these terms.

Note: [CSS3-FLEXBOX] also defines flex-relative terms, which are used in describing flex layout.

6.1. Abstract Dimensions

The are defined below:

The dimension perpendicular to the flow of text within a line, i.e. the vertical dimension in horizontal writing modes, and the horizontal dimension in vertical writing modes. The dimension parallel to the flow of text within a line, i.e. the horizontal dimension in horizontal writing modes, and the vertical dimension in vertical writing modes. The axis in the block dimension, i.e. the vertical axis in horizontal writing modes and the horizontal axis in vertical writing modes. The axis in the inline dimension, i.e. the horizontal axis in horizontal writing modes and the vertical axis in vertical writing modes. A measurement in the block dimension: refers to the physical height (vertical dimension) in horizontal writing modes, and to the physical width (horizontal dimension) in vertical writing modes. A measurement in the inline dimension: refers to the physical width (horizontal dimension) in horizontal writing modes, and to the physical height (vertical dimension) in vertical writing modes.

6.2. Flow-relative Directions

The , block-start, block-end, inline-start, and inline-end, are defined relative to the flow of content on the page. In an LTR horizontal-tb writing mode, they correspond to the top, bottom, left, and right directions, respectively. They are defined as follows:

The side that comes earlier in the block flow direction, as determined by the writing-mode property: the physical top in horizontal-tb mode, the right in vertical-rl, and the left in vertical-lr. The side opposite block-start. The s >direction value of rtl, this means the line-right side. The side opposite start.

Where contextually unambiguous or encompassing both meanings, the terms and are used in place of block-start/inline-start and block-end/inline-end, respectively.

Note that while determining the block-start and block-end s >writing-mode property but also the direction property.

6.3. Line-relative Directions

The determines which side of a line box is the logical “top” (ascender side). It is given by the writing-mode property. Usually the line-relative “top” corresponds to the block-start side, but this is not always the case: in Mongolian typesetting (and thus by default in vertical-lr writing modes), the line-relative “top” corresponds to the block-end side. Hence the need for distinct terminology.

A primarily Mongolian document, such as the one above, is written in vertical lines stacking left to right, but lays its Latin text with the tops of the glyphs towards the right. This makes the text run in the same inline direction as Mongolian (top-to-bottom) and face the same direction it does in other East Asian layouts (which have vertical lines stacking right to left), but the glyphs’ tops are facing the bottom of the line stack rather than the top, which in an English paragraph would be upside-down. (See this Diagram of Mongolian Text Layout.)

In addition to a line-relative “top” and “bottom” to map things like ‘vertical-align: top’, CSS also needs to refer to a line-relative “left” and “right” in order to map things like text-align: left. Thus there are four , which are defined relative to the line orientation as follows:

or Nominally the side that corresponds to the ascender side or “top” side of a line box. (The side overlines are typically drawn on.) or Opposite of over: the line-relative “bottom” or descender side. (The side underlines are typically drawn on.) The line-relative «left» side of a line box, which is nominally the side from which LTR text would start. The line-relative «right» side of a line box, which is nominally the side from which RTL text would start. (Opposite of line-left.)

See the table below for the exact mappings between physical and line-relative directions.

Line orientation in horizontal-tb

Vertical baseline of an upright glyph

Since the baseline is vertical, the definitions for mixed or sideways above still apply; i.e., line-over is on right, and line-under is on left.

This is in line with font systems such as OpenType which defines the ascender on right and the descender on left in their vertical metrics.

6.4. Abstract-to-Physical Mappings

The following table summarizes the abstract-to-physical mappings (based on the used direction and writing-mode):

Abstract-Physical Mapping

writing-mode horizontal-tb vertical-rl vertical-lr
direction ltr rtl ltr rtl ltr rtl
block-size height width
inline-size w >height
block-start top right left
block-end bottom left right
inline-start left right top bottom top bottom
inline-end right left bottom top bottom top
over top right
under bottom left
line-left left top
line-right right bottom

Note: The used direction depends on the computed writing-mode and text-orientation: in vertical writing modes, a text-orientation value of upright forces the used direction to ltr.

7. Abstract Box Layout

7.1. Principles of Layout in Vertical Writing Modes

CSS box layout in vertical writing modes is analogous to layout in the horizontal writing modes, following the principles outlined below:

Layout calculation rules (such as those in CSS2.1, Section 10.3) that apply to the horizontal dimension in horizontal writing modes instead apply to the vertical dimension in vertical writing modes. Likewise, layout calculation rules (such as those in CSS2.1, Section 10.6) that apply to the vertical dimension in horizontal writing modes instead apply to the horizontal dimension in vertical writing modes. Thus:

Layout rules that refer to the width use the height instead, and vice versa.

Layout rules that refer to the *-left and *-right box properties (border, margin, padding, positioning offsets) use *-top and *-bottom instead, and vice versa, mapping the horizontal writing-mode rules of CSS2.1 into vertical writing-mode rules using the flow-relative directions. The side of the box these properties apply to doesn’t change: only which values are inputs to which layout calculations changes. The margin-left property still affects the lefthand margin, for example; however in a vertical-rl writing mode it takes part in margin collapsing in place of margin-bottom.

Layout rules that depend on the direction property to choose between left and right (e.g. overflow, overconstraint resolution, the initial value for text-align, table column ordering) are abstracted to the start and end sides and applied appropriately.

For example, in vertical writing modes, table rows are vertical and table columns are horizontal. In a vertical-rl mixed rtl table, the first column would be on the bottom (the inline-start s >auto values for margin-top and margin-bottom it would be centered vertically within its block flow.

Table in vertical-rl RTL writing mode

For features such as text alignment, floating, and list marker positioning, that primarily reference the left or right sides of the line box or its longitudinal parallels and therefore have no top or bottom equivalent, the line-left and line-right sides are used as the reference for the left and right sides respectively.

Likewise for features such as underlining, overlining, and baseline alignment (the unfortunately-named vertical-align), that primarily reference the top or bottom sides of the linebox or its transversal parallels and therefore have no left or right equivalent, the line-over and line-under sides are used as the reference for the top and bottom sides respectively.

The details of these mappings are provided below.

7.2. Dimensional Mapping

Certain properties behave logically as follows:

  • The first and second values of the border-spacing property represent spacing between columns and rows respectively, not necessarily the horizontal and vertical spacing respectively. [CSS2]
  • The line-height property always refers to the logical height. [CSS2]

The height properties (height, min-height, and max-height) refer to the physical height, and the width properties (width, min-width, and max-width) refer to the physical width. However, the rules used to calculate box dimensions and positions are logical.

For example, the calculation rules in CSS2.1 Section 10.3 are used for the inline dimension measurements: they apply to the inline size (which could be either the physical width or physical height) and to the inline-start and inline-end margins, padding, and border. Likewise the calculation rules in CSS2.1 Section 10.6 are used in the block dimension: they apply to the block size and to the block-start and block-end margins, padding, and border. [CSS2]

As a corollary, percentages on the margin and padding properties, which are always calculated with respect to the containing block width in CSS2.1, are calculated with respect to the inline size of the containing block in CSS3.

7.3. Orthogonal Flows

When a box has a different writing-mode from its containing block two cases are possible:

  • The two writing modes are parallel to each other. (For example, vertical-rl and vertical-lr).
  • The two writing modes are perpendicular to each other. (For example, horizontal-tb and vertical-rl).

When a box has a writing mode that is perpendicular to its containing block it is said to be in, or establish, an .

To handle this case, CSS layout calculations are divided into two phases: sizing a box, and positioning the box within its flow.

  • In the sizing phase—calculating the width and height of the box—the dimensions of the box and the containing block are mapped to the inline size and block size and calculations are performed accordingly using the writing mode of the box establishing the orthogonal flow.
  • In the positioning phase—calculating the positioning offsets, margins, borders, and padding—the dimensions of the box and its containing block are mapped to the inline size and block size and calculations are performed according to the writing mode of the containing block of the box establishing the orthogonal flow.

Since auto margins are resolved consistent with the containing block’s writing mode, a box establishing an orthogonal flow can, once sized, be aligned or centered within its containing block just like other block-level boxes by using auto margins.

An example of orthogonal flow

For example, if a vertical block is placed ins >inline size , even though the physical height is the block size, not the inline size , of the parent block.

On the other hand, because the containing block is in a horizontal writing mode, the vertical margins on the child participate in margin-collapsing, even though they are in the inline-axis of the child, and horizontal auto margins will expand to fill the containing block, even though they are in the block-axis of the child.

This means that when applying shrink-to-fit formula to a box such as an inline-block, float, or table-cell, if its child establishes an orthogonal flow, the calculation dependency must be changed so that the sizing phase of the child runs first and its used block size becomes an input to the inline-size shrink-to-fit formula of the parent.

7.3.1. Available Space of Orthogonal Flows

It is common in CSS for a containing block to have a definite inline size, but not a definite block size. This typically happens in CSS2.1 when a containing block has an auto height, for example: its w >block size depends on its contents. In such cases the available inline space is defined as the inline size of the containing block; but the available block space , which would otherwise be the block size of the containing block, is infinite.

Putting a box in an orthogonal flow can result in the opposite: for the box’s available block space to be definite, but its available inline space to be indefinite. In such cases a percentage of the containing block’s inline size cannot be defined, and inline axis computations cannot be resolved. In these cases, an additional fallback size is used in place of the available inline space for calculations that require a definite available inline space : this size is the smallest of

  • the size represented by the containing block’s inner max size (if that is fixed) floored by its inner min size (if that is fixed)
  • the nearest ancestor scrollport’s inner size if that is fixed, else / capped by its inner max size if that is fixed, floored by its inner min size if that is fixed
  • the initial containing block’s size

See [css-sizing-3] for further details on CSS sizing terminology and concepts.

7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

The automatic sizing of orthogonal multi-column containers (in both axes) and of other display types not mentioned above is not defined in this specification.

7.3.3. Fragmenting Orthogonal Flows

This section is informative.

With regards to fragmentation, the rules in CSS2.1 still hold in vertical writing modes and orthogonal flows: break opportunities do not occur inside line boxes, only between them. UAs that support [CSS3COL] may break in the (potentially zero-width) gap between columns, however.

Note that if content spills outside the pagination stream established by the root element, the UA is not required to print such content. Authors wishing to mix writing modes with long streams of text are thus encouraged to use CSS columns to keep all content flowing in the document’s pagination direction.

In other words, if your document would require two scrollbars on the screen it probably won’t all print. Fix your layout, e.g. by using columns so that it all scrolls (and therefore paginates) in one direction if you want to make sure it’ll all print. T-shaped documents tend not to print well.

7.4. Flow-Relative Mappings

Flow-relative directions are calculated with respect to the writing mode of the containing block of the box and used to abstract layout rules related to the box properties (margins, borders, padding) and any properties related to positioning the box within its containing block (float, clear, top, bottom, left, right, caption-s >caption-side , whose top / top-outside and bottom / bottom-outside values are associated to the block-start and block-end sides of the table, respectively.)

For example, the margin that is dropped when a box’s inline dimension is over-constrained is the end margin as determined by the writing mode of the containing block.

The margin collapsing rules apply exactly with the block-start margin substituted for the top margin and the block-end margin substituted for the bottom margin. Similarly the block-start padding and border are substituted for the top padding and border, and the block-end padding and border substituted for the bottom padding and border. Note this means only block-start and block-end margins ever collapse.

Flow-relative directions are calculated with respect to the writing mode of the box and used to abstract layout related to the box’s contents:

  • The initial value of the text-align property aligns to the start edge of the line box.
  • The text-indent property indents from the start edge of the line box.
  • For tables, the ordering of columns begins on the inline-start s >7.5. Line-Relative Mappings

The line-relative directions are over, under, line-left, and line-right. In an LTR horizontal-tb writing mode, they correspond to the top, bottom, left, and right directions, respectively.

The line-right and line-left directions are calculated with respect to the writing mode of the box and used to interpret the left and right values of the following properties:

The line-right and line-left directions are calculated with respect to the writing mode of the containing block of the box and used to interpret the left and right values of the following properties:

The over and under directions are calculated with respect to the writing mode of the box and used to define the interpretation of the «top» (over) and «bottom» (under) sides of the line box as follows:

  • For the vertical-align property, the «top» of the line box is its over edge; the «bottom» of the line box is its under edge. Positive length and percentage values shift the baseline towards the line-over edge. [CSS2]
  • For the text-decoration property, the underline is drawn on the under s >Note that the CSS Text Decoration Module defines this in more detail and provides additional controls for controlling the position of underlines and overlines. [CSS3-TEXT-DECOR]

7.6. Purely Physical Mappings

The following values are purely physical in their definitions and do not respond to changes in writing mode:

  • the rect() notation of the clip property [CSS2]
  • the background properties [CSS2][CSS3BG]
  • the border-image properties [CSS3BG]
  • the offsets of the box-shadow and text-shadow properties

8. The Principal Writing Mode

The of the document is determined by the used writing-mode, direction, and text-orientation values of the root element. This writing mode is used, for example, to determine the direction of scrolling and the default page progression direction.

As a special case for handling HTML documents, if the root element has a body child element [HTML], the used value of the of writing-mode and direction properties on root element are taken from the computed writing-mode and direction of the first such child element instead of from the root element’s own values. The UA may also propagate the value of text-orientation in this manner. Note that this does not affect the computed values of writing-mode , direction , or text-orientation of the root element itself.

Note: Propagation is done on used values rather than computed values to avoid disrupting other aspects of style computation, such as inheritance, logical property mapping logic, or length value computation.


8.1. Propagation to the Initial Containing Block

The principal writing mode is propagated to the initial containing block and to the viewport, thereby affecting the layout of the root element and the scrolling direction of the viewport.

8.2. Page Flow: the page progression direction

In paged media CSS classifies all pages as either left or right pages. The page progression direction (see [CSS3PAGE]), which determines whether the left or right page in a spread is first in the flow and whether the first page is by default a left or right page, depends on the principal writing mode as follows:

principal writing mode page progression
horizontal-tb and ltr left-to-right
horizontal-tb and rtl right-to-left
vertical-rl right-to-left
vertical-lr left-to-right

Note: Unless otherwise overridden, the first page of a document begins on the second half of a spread, e.g. on the right page in a left-to-right page progression.

9. Glyph Composition

9.1. Horizontal-in-Vertical Composition: the text-combine-upright property

Name:
Value: none | all
Initial: none
Applies to: non-replaced inline elements
Inherited: yes
Percentages: n/a
Computed value: specified keyword
Canonical order: n/a
Animation type: not animatable

This property specifies the combination of multiple typographic character units into the space of a single typographic character unit . If the combined text is wider than 1em, the UA must fit the contents within 1em, see below. The resulting composition is treated as a single upright glyph for the purposes of layout and decoration. This property only has an effect in vertical writing modes. Values have the following meanings:

No special processing. Attempt to typeset horizontally all consecutive typographic character units within the box such that they take up the space of a single typographic character unit within the vertical line box.

In East Asian documents, the text-combine-upright effect is often used to display Latin-based strings such as components of a date or letters of an initialism, always in a horizontal writing mode regardless of the writing mode of the line:

Example of horizontal-in-vertical tate-chu-yoko

The figure is the result of the rules

and the following markup:

In Japanese, this effect is known as tate-chu-yoko.

Future levels of CSS Writing Modes will introduce values to automatically detect commonly-affected sequences. For example, CSS Writing Modes Level 4 introduces the digits value to combine sequences of digits.

9.1.1. Text Run Rules

To avoid complexity in the rendering and layout, text-combine-upright can only combine plain text: consecutive typographic character units that are not interrupted by a box boundary.

However, because the property inherits, the UA should ensure that the contents of the box effecting the combination are not part of an otherwise-combinable sequence that happens to begin or end outside the box; if so, then the text is laid out normally, as if text-combine-upright were none.

For example, given the rule

if the following markup were given:

no text would combine.

9.1.2. Layout Rules

When combining text as for text-combine-upright: all, the glyphs of the combined text are b >1em . Processing of document white space included in the combined text is not defined in this level. The effective size of the composition is assumed to be 1em square; anything outside the square is not measured for layout purposes. The UA should center the glyphs horizontally and vertically within the measured 1em square.

The baseline of the resulting composition must be chosen such that the square is centered between the text-over and text-under baselines of its parent inline box prior to any baseline alignment shift (vertical-align). For bidi reordering, the composition is treated the same as a typographic character unit with text-orientation: upright. For line breaking before and after the composition, it is treated as a regular inline with its actual contents. For other text layout purposes, e.g. emphasis marks, text-decoration, spacing, etc. the resulting composition is treated as a single glyph representing the Object Replacement Character U+FFFC.

9.1.3. Compression Rules

The UA must ensure that the combined advance width of the composition fits within 1em by compressing the combined text if necessary. (This does not necessarily mean that the glyphs will fit within 1em, as some glyphs are designed to draw outside their geometric boundaries.) OpenType implementations must use width-specific variants (OpenType features hwid / twid / qwid ; other glyph-width features such as fwid or pwid are not included) to compress text in cases where those variants are available for all typographic character units in the composition. Otherwise, the UA may use any means to compress the text, including substituting half-width, third-width, and/or quarter-width glyphs provided by the font, using other font features designed to compress text horizontally, scaling the text geometrically, or any combination thereof.

For example, a simple OpenType-based implementation might compress the text as follows:

  1. Enable 1/ n -width glyphs for combined text of n typographic character units (i.e. use OpenType hwid for 2 typographic character units , twid for 3 typographic character units , etc.) if the number of typographic character units > 1. Note that the number of typographic character units ≠ number of Unicode codepoints!
  2. If the result is wider than 1em, horizontally scale the result to 1em.

A different implementation that utilizes OpenType layout features might compose the text first with normal glyphs to see if that fits, then substitute in half-width or third-width forms as available and necessary, possibly adjusting its approach or combining it with scaling operations depending on the available glyph substitutions.

In some fonts, the ideographic glyphs are given a compressed design such that they are 1em wide but shorter than 1em tall. To accommodate such fonts, the UA may vertically scale the composition to match the advance height of 水 U+6C34 as rendered according to the specified font settings. In such a case the resulting composition assumes the advance height of 水 U+6C34 rather than 1em.

9.1.3.1. Full-width Characters

In order to preserve typographic color when compressing the text to 1em, when the combined text consists of more than one typographic character unit, then any full-w >typographic character units should first be converted to their non-full-width equivalents by reversing the algorithm defined for text-transform: full-width in [CSS-TEXT-3] before applying other compression techniques.

Properties that affect glyph selection, such as the font-variant and font-feature-settings properties defined in [CSS3-FONTS], can potentially affect the selection of variants for characters included in combined text runs. Authors are advised to use these properties with care when text-combine-upright is also used.

10. Privacy and Security Considerations

This specification introduces no new privacy leaks, or security considerations beyond «implement it correctly».

Changes

Changes since the September 2020 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

No substantive change; minor editorial fixes (see issue 4293, 4272, and 4273).

Changes since the July 2020 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

  • Added back acc > Changes since the May 2020 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation
  • Clarified that propagation of the principal writing mode from the body element to the initial containing block and viewport does affect the used value on root element as well, but not its computed value. Also, optionally allow propagating text-orientation as well. (Issue 3066)
  • Make the processing of white space in a text-combine-upright combined text sequence explicitely undefined in this level (Issue 4139)

When combining text as for text-combine-upright: all, the glyphs of the combined text are b >1em .

Changes since the December 2020 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

  • Fixed the fallback “available space” for orthogonal flows to handle max-height (and min-height) which it forgot to cons > Changes since the December 2015 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation
  • Deferred the s >digits value of text-combine-upright to Level 4.
  • Deferred the automatic multi-column behavior of orthogonal flows to Level 4.
  • Changed the fallback “available space” for orthogonal flows to use the nearest fixed-size scrollport where available. (Issue 1391)
  • Added Privacy and Security Considerations section.
  • Miscellaneous editorial clarifications.

Changes since the March 2014 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

  • Fixed orthogonal flows auto-sizing rules to better handle shrink-wrapping.
  • Removed sideways-left and s >sideways-right , and added s >use-glyph-orientation value of text-orientation and defined glyph-orientation-vertical as an alias of text-orientation consistent with how CSS aliases are handled (see page-break-ins > Acknowledgements

L. David Baron, Brian Birtles, James Clark, John Daggett, Nami Fujii, Daisaku Hataoka, Martin Heijdra, Laurentiu Iancu, Richard Ishida, Jonathan Kew, Yasuo Kida, Tatsuo Kobayashi, Toshi Kobayashi, Ken Lunde, Shunsuke Matsuki, Nat McCully, Eric Muller, Paul Nelson, Kenzou Onozawa, Chris Pratley, Xidorn Quan, Florian Rivoal, Dwayne Robinson, Simon Sapin, Marcin Sawicki, Dirk Schulze, Hajime Shiozawa, Alan Stearns, Michel Suignard, Takao Suzuki, Gérard Talbot, Masataka Yakura, Taro Yamamoto, Steve Zilles

Appendix A: Vertical Scripts in Unicode

This section is informative.

This appendix lists the vertical-only and bi-orientational scripts in Unicode 6.0 [UNICODE] and their transformation from horizontal to vertical orientation. Any script not listed explicitly is assumed to be horizontal-only. The script classification of Unicode characters is given by [UAX24].

Vertical Scripts in Unicode

Code Name Transform (Clockwise) Vertical Intrinsic Direction
Bopo Bopomofo ttb
Egyp Egyptian Hieroglyphs ttb
Hira Hiragana ttb
Kana Katakana ttb
Hani Han ttb
Hang Hangul ttb
Merc Meroitic Cursive ttb
Mero Meroitic Hieroglyphs ttb
Mong Mongolian 90° ttb
Ogam Ogham -90° btt
Orkh Old Turkic -90° ttb
Phag Phags Pa 90° ttb
Yiii Yi ttb

Exceptions: For the purposes of this specification, all fullwidth (F) and wide (W) characters are treated as belonging to a vertical script, and halfwidth characters (H) are treated as belonging to a horizontal script. [UAX11]

Note that for vertical-only characters (such as Mongolian and Phags Pa letters), the glyphs in the Unicode code charts are shown in their vertical orientation. In horizontal text, they are typeset in a 90° counter-clockwise rotation from this orientation.

Due to limitations in the current featureset of Unicode Technical Report 50 and CSS Writing Modes, vertical mixed typesetting cannot automatically handle either Ogham or Old Turkic. For these scripts, sideways-lr (in CSS Writing Modes Level 4) can be used to typeset passages.

Conformance

Document conventions

Conformance requirements are expressed with a combination of descriptive assertions and RFC 2119 terminology. The key words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in the normative parts of this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. However, for readability, these words do not appear in all uppercase letters in this specification.

All of the text of this specification is normative except sections explicitly marked as non-normative, examples, and notes. [RFC2119]

Examples in this specification are introduced with the words “for example” or are set apart from the normative text with , like this:

This is an example of an informative example.

Informative notes begin with the word “Note” and are set apart from the normative text with , like this:

Note, this is an informative note.

Advisements are normative sections styled to evoke special attention and are set apart from other normative text with , like this: UAs MUST provide an accessible alternative.

Conformance classes

Conformance to this specification is defined for three conformance classes:

style sheet A CSS style sheet. renderer A UA that interprets the semantics of a style sheet and renders documents that use them. authoring tool A UA that writes a style sheet.

A style sheet is conformant to this specification if all of its statements that use syntax defined in this module are valid according to the generic CSS grammar and the individual grammars of each feature defined in this module.

A renderer is conformant to this specification if, in addition to interpreting the style sheet as defined by the appropriate specifications, it supports all the features defined by this specification by parsing them correctly and rendering the document accordingly. However, the inability of a UA to correctly render a document due to limitations of the device does not make the UA non-conformant. (For example, a UA is not required to render color on a monochrome monitor.)

An authoring tool is conformant to this specification if it writes style sheets that are syntactically correct according to the generic CSS grammar and the individual grammars of each feature in this module, and meet all other conformance requirements of style sheets as described in this module.

Requirements for Responsible Implementation of CSS

The following sections define several conformance requirements for implementing CSS responsibly, in a way that promotes interoperability in the present and future.

Partial Implementations

So that authors can exploit the forward-compatible parsing rules to assign fallback values, CSS renderers must treat as invalid (and ignore as appropriate) any at-rules, properties, property values, keywords, and other syntactic constructs for which they have no usable level of support. In particular, user agents must not selectively ignore unsupported property values and honor supported values in a single multi-value property declaration: if any value is considered invalid (as unsupported values must be), CSS requires that the entire declaration be ignored.

Implementations of Unstable and Proprietary Features

To avoid clashes with future stable CSS features, the CSSWG recommends following best practices for the implementation of unstable features and proprietary extensions to CSS.

Implementations of CR-level Features

Once a specification reaches the Candidate Recommendation stage, implementers should release an unprefixed implementation of any CR-level feature they can demonstrate to be correctly implemented according to spec, and should avoid exposing a prefixed variant of that feature.

To establish and maintain the interoperability of CSS across implementations, the CSS Working Group requests that non-experimental CSS renderers submit an implementation report (and, if necessary, the testcases used for that implementation report) to the W3C before releasing an unprefixed implementation of any CSS features. Testcases submitted to W3C are subject to review and correction by the CSS Working Group.

Further information on submitting testcases and implementation reports can be found from on the CSS Working Group’s website at https://www.w3.org/Style/CSS/Test/. Questions should be directed to the public-css-testsuite@w3.org mailing list.

Index

Terms defined by this specification

  • abstract dimensions , in §6.1
  • all , in §9.1
  • alphabetic baseline , in §4.2
  • baseline , in §4.1
  • baseline table , in §4.1
  • bidi-isolate , in §2.2
  • bidi-isolated , in §2.2
  • bidi isolation , in §2.2
  • bidi-override , in §2.2
  • bidi paragraph , in §2.4
  • bidirectionality , in §2
  • bi-orientational , in §5
  • bi-orientational transform , in §5
  • block-axis , in §6.1
  • block axis , in §6.1
  • block dimension , in §6.1
  • block-end , in §6.2
  • block end , in §6.2
  • block flow direction , in §1
  • block size , in §6.1
  • block-size , in §6.1
  • block start , in §6.2
  • block-start , in §6.2
  • bottom , in §6
  • central baseline , in §4.2
  • direction , in §2.1
  • directional embedding , in §2.2
  • directional override , in §2.2
  • dominant baseline , in §4.4
  • embed , in §2.2
  • end , in §6.2
  • establish an orthogonal flow , in §7.3
  • flow-relative , in §6
  • flow-relative direction , in §6.2
  • forced paragraph break , in §2.4
  • glyph-orientation-vertical , in §5.1.3
  • height , in §6
  • horizontal axis , in §6
  • horizontal block flow , in §1
  • horizontal dimension , in §6
  • horizontal-only , in §5
  • horizontal script , in §5
  • horizontal-tb , in §3.2
  • horizontal writing mode , in §1
  • inline axis , in §6.1
  • inline-axis , in §6.1
  • inline base direction , in §1
  • inline dimension , in §6.1
  • inline end , in §6.2
  • inline-end , in §6.2
  • inline size , in §6.1
  • inline-size , in §6.1
  • inline start , in §6.2
  • inline-start , in §6.2
  • isolate , in §2.2
  • isolated sequence , in §2.2
  • isolate-override , in §2.2
  • isolation , in §2.2
  • left , in §6
  • line-left , in §6.3
  • line orientation , in §6.3
  • line-over , in §6.3
  • line-relative , in §6

  • line-relative direction , in §6.3
  • line-right , in §6.3
  • line-under , in §6.3
  • logical height , in §6.1
  • logical width , in §6.1
  • ltr , in §2.1
  • mixed , in §5.1
  • none , in §9.1
  • normal , in §2.2
  • orthogonal , in §7.3
  • orthogonal flow , in §7.3
  • over , in §6.3
  • physical , in §6
  • physical bottom , in §6
  • physical dimensions , in §6
  • physical direction , in §6
  • physical left , in §6
  • physical right , in §6
  • physical top , in §6
  • plaintext , in §2.2
  • principal writing mode , in §8
  • right , in §6
  • rtl , in §2.1
  • sideways , in §5.1
  • sideways-right , in §5.1
  • start , in §6.2
  • text-combine-upright , in §9.1
  • text-orientation , in §5.1
  • top , in §6
  • typographic mode , in §1
  • under , in §6.3
  • unicode-bidi , in §2.2
  • upright , in §5.1
  • vertical axis , in §6
  • vertical block flow , in §1
  • vertical dimension , in §6
  • vertical-lr , in §3.2
  • vertical-only , in §5
  • vertical-rl , in §3.2
  • vertical script , in §5
  • vertical writing mode , in §1
  • width , in §6
  • writing mode , in §1
  • writing-mode , in §3.2
  • x-axis , in §6
  • y-axis , in §6

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-box-3/#propdef-margin-bottomReferenced in:

  • 7.1. Principles of Layout in Vertical Writing Modes(2)

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-box-3/#propdef-margin-leftReferenced in:

  • 7.1. Principles of Layout in Vertical Writing Modes(2)

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-box-3/#propdef-margin-rightReferenced in:

  • 7.1. Principles of Layout in Vertical Writing Modes

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-box-3/#propdef-margin-topReferenced in:

  • 7.1. Principles of Layout in Vertical Writing Modes

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-break-4/#propdef-box-decoration-breakReferenced in:

  • 2.4.5. Reordering-induced Box Fragmentation

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-cascade-4/#computed-valueReferenced in:

  • 1.1. Module Interactions
  • 5.1. Orienting Text: the text-orientation property
  • 8. The Principal Writing Mode

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-cascade-4/#valdef-all-inheritReferenced in:

  • 2.2. Embeddings and Overrides: the unicode-bidi property

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-cascade-4/#inheritanceReferenced in:

  • 8. The Principal Writing Mode

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-cascade-4/#used-valueReferenced in:

  • 5.1. Orienting Text: the text-orientation property(2)
  • 6.4. Abstract-to-Physical Mappings
  • 8. The Principal Writing Mode(2)

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#block-containerReferenced in:

  • 2.2. Embeddings and Overrides: the unicode-bidi property(2)
  • 3.2. Block Flow Direction: the writing-mode property
  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#block-formatting-contextReferenced in:

  • 3.2. Block Flow Direction: the writing-mode property

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#block-levelReferenced in:

  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#containing-blockReferenced in:

  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#display-typeReferenced in:

  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#valdef-display-flowReferenced in:

  • 3.2. Block Flow Direction: the writing-mode property

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#valdef-display-flow-rootReferenced in:

  • 3.2. Block Flow Direction: the writing-mode property

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#in-flowReferenced in:

  • 3.2. Block Flow Direction: the writing-mode property

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#independent-formatting-contextReferenced in:

  • 3.2. Block Flow Direction: the writing-mode property

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#initial-containing-blockReferenced in:

  • 8.1. Propagation to the Initial Containing Block

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#valdef-display-inlineReferenced in:

  • 2.2. Embeddings and Overrides: the unicode-bidi property
  • 3.2. Block Flow Direction: the writing-mode property

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#inline-boxReferenced in:

  • 2.4.5. Reordering-induced Box Fragmentation

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#valdef-display-inline-blockReferenced in:

  • 3.2. Block Flow Direction: the writing-mode property
  • 9.1.2. Layout Rules
  • Changes since the May 2020 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#inner-display-typeReferenced in:

  • 3.2. Block Flow Direction: the writing-mode property(2)

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#replaced-elementReferenced in:

  • 2.4.3. Bidi Treatment of Atomic Inlines
  • 3.2. Block Flow Direction: the writing-mode property

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/#valdef-display-run-inReferenced in:

  • Changes since the March 2014 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-inline-3/#root-inline-boxReferenced in:

  • 2.2. Embeddings and Overrides: the unicode-bidi property

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-inline-3/#propdef-vertical-alignReferenced in:

  • 4. Inline-level Alignment(2)
  • 4.3. Atomic Inline Baselines
  • 4.4. Baseline Alignment(2)(3)
  • 7.1. Principles of Layout in Vertical Writing Modes
  • 7.5. Line-Relative Mappings
  • 9.1.2. Layout Rules

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-masking-1/#funcdef-rectReferenced in:

  • 7.6. Purely Physical Mappings

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-overflow-3/#scrollportReferenced in:

  • 7.3.1. Available Space of Orthogonal Flows
  • Changes since the December 2015 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

https://drafts.csswg.org/css-ruby-1/#ruby-annotation-container-boxReferenced in:

  • Changes since the March 2014 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

https://drafts.csswg.org/css-ruby-1/#ruby-base-container-boxReferenced in:

  • Changes since the March 2014 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#valdef-width-autoReferenced in:

  • 7.3.1. Available Space of Orthogonal Flows
  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#automatic-sizeReferenced in:

  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots(2)

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#availableReferenced in:

  • 7.3.1. Available Space of Orthogonal Flows(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#availableReferenced in:

  • 7.3.1. Available Space of Orthogonal Flows(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#availableReferenced in:

  • 7.3.1. Available Space of Orthogonal Flows(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#definiteReferenced in:

  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#fallbackReferenced in:

  • 7.3.1. Available Space of Orthogonal Flows
  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#fit-content-sizeReferenced in:

  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#max-widthReferenced in:

  • 7.3.1. Available Space of Orthogonal Flows(2)

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#max-content-inline-sizeReferenced in:

  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#max-contentReferenced in:

  • 7.3. Orthogonal Flows

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#min-widthReferenced in:

  • 7.3.1. Available Space of Orthogonal Flows(2)

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#min-content-inline-sizeReferenced in:

  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#min-contentReferenced in:

  • 7.3. Orthogonal Flows

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#preferred-size-propertiesReferenced in:

  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/#stretch-fit-inline-sizeReferenced in:

  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots(2)

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-text-3/#characterReferenced in:

  • 5.1.1. Vertical Typesetting and Font Features

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-text-3/#white-spaceReferenced in:

  • 9.1.2. Layout Rules
  • Changes since the May 2020 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-text-3/#propdef-letter-spacingReferenced in:

  • 9.1.2. Layout Rules
  • Changes since the May 2020 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-text-3/#propdef-text-alignReferenced in:

  • 6.3. Line-relative Directions
  • 7.1. Principles of Layout in Vertical Writing Modes
  • 7.4. Flow-Relative Mappings
  • 7.5. Line-Relative Mappings

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-text-3/#propdef-text-indentReferenced in:

  • 7.4. Flow-Relative Mappings

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-text-3/#propdef-text-transformReferenced in:

  • 9.1.3.1. Full-width Characters

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-text-3/#typographic-character-unitReferenced in:

  • 5.1. Orienting Text: the text-orientation property(2)(3)(4)
  • 5.1.1. Vertical Typesetting and Font Features(2)(3)
  • 5.1.2. Mixed Vertical Orientations
  • 9.1. Horizontal-in-Vertical Composition: the text-combine-upright property(2)(3)(4)
  • 9.1.1. Text Run Rules
  • 9.1.2. Layout Rules
  • 9.1.3. Compression Rules(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
  • 9.1.3.1. Full-width Characters(2)

https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-values/#angle-valueReferenced in:

  • 5.1.3. Obsolete: the SVG1.1 glyph-orientation-vertical property

https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-values/#integer-valueReferenced in:

  • 5.1.3. Obsolete: the SVG1.1 glyph-orientation-vertical property

https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-values/#length-valueReferenced in:

  • 4.4. Baseline Alignment

https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-values/#percentage-valueReferenced in:

  • 4.4. Baseline Alignment

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-values-4/#css-wide-keywordsReferenced in:

  • 1.2. Value Types and Terminology

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-values-4/#font-relative-lengthReferenced in:

  • 1.1. Module Interactions

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-values-4/#comb-oneReferenced in:

  • 2.1. Specifying Directionality: the direction property
  • 2.2. Embeddings and Overrides: the unicode-bidi property(2)(3)(4)(5)
  • 3.2. Block Flow Direction: the writing-mode property(2)
  • 5.1. Orienting Text: the text-orientation property(2)
  • 5.1.3. Obsolete: the SVG1.1 glyph-orientation-vertical property(2)(3)(4)
  • 9.1. Horizontal-in-Vertical Composition: the text-combine-upright property

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-writing-modes-4/#valdef-writing-mode-sideways-lrReferenced in:

  • 5.1.2. Mixed Vertical Orientations
  • Changes since the December 2015 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation
  • Changes since the March 2014 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation
  • Appendix A: Vertical Scripts in Unicode

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-writing-modes-4/#valdef-writing-mode-sideways-rlReferenced in:

  • Changes since the December 2015 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation
  • Changes since the March 2014 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/tables.html#propdef-border-spacingReferenced in:

  • 7.2. Dimensional Mapping

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visuren.html#propdef-bottomReferenced in:

  • 7.4. Flow-Relative Mappings

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/tables.html#propdef-caption-sideReferenced in:

  • 7.4. Flow-Relative Mappings(2)
  • 7.5. Line-Relative Mappings
  • Changes since the March 2014 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visuren.html#propdef-clearReferenced in:

  • 7.4. Flow-Relative Mappings
  • 7.5. Line-Relative Mappings

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visufx.html#propdef-clipReferenced in:

  • 7.6. Purely Physical Mappings

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visuren.html#propdef-displayReferenced in:

  • 2.2. Embeddings and Overrides: the unicode-bidi property(2)
  • 2.4.3. Bidi Treatment of Atomic Inlines
  • 3.2. Block Flow Direction: the writing-mode property(2)(3)

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visuren.html#propdef-floatReferenced in:

  • 7.4. Flow-Relative Mappings
  • 7.5. Line-Relative Mappings

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visudet.html#propdef-heightReferenced in:

  • 7.2. Dimensional Mapping

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visuren.html#propdef-leftReferenced in:

  • 7.4. Flow-Relative Mappings

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visudet.html#propdef-line-heightReferenced in:

  • 7.2. Dimensional Mapping
  • 9.1.2. Layout Rules
  • Changes since the May 2020 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visudet.html#propdef-max-heightReferenced in:

  • 7.2. Dimensional Mapping
  • Changes since the December 2020 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visudet.html#propdef-max-widthReferenced in:

  • 7.2. Dimensional Mapping

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visudet.html#propdef-min-heightReferenced in:

  • 7.2. Dimensional Mapping
  • Changes since the December 2020 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visudet.html#propdef-min-widthReferenced in:

  • 7.2. Dimensional Mapping

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/page.html#propdef-page-break-insideReferenced in:

  • Changes since the March 2014 CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 Candidate Recommendation

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visuren.html#propdef-rightReferenced in:

  • 7.4. Flow-Relative Mappings

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visuren.html#propdef-topReferenced in:

  • 7.4. Flow-Relative Mappings

https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/visudet.html#propdef-widthReferenced in:

  • 7.2. Dimensional Mapping

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-fonts-3/#propdef-font-feature-settingsReferenced in:

  • 9.1.3.1. Full-width Characters

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-fonts-3/#propdef-font-variantReferenced in:

  • 9.1.3.1. Full-width Characters

https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-images/#default-object-sizeReferenced in:

  • 3.2. Block Flow Direction: the writing-mode property

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-text-decor-3/#propdef-text-decorationReferenced in:

  • 7.5. Line-Relative Mappings

https://www.w3.org/TR/css-text-decor-3/#propdef-text-shadowReferenced in:

  • 7.6. Purely Physical Mappings

https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-background/#propdef-box-shadowReferenced in:

  • 7.6. Purely Physical Mappings

https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-multicol/#multi-column-containerReferenced in:

  • 7.3.2. Auto-sizing Orthogonal Flow Roots

https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-page/#page-progressionReferenced in:

  • 8. The Principal Writing Mode
  • 8.2. Page Flow: the page progression direction(2)

https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/sections.html#the-body-elementReferenced in:

  • 8. The Principal Writing Mode

Terms defined by reference

  • [css-box-3] defines the following terms:
    • margin-bottom
    • margin-left
    • margin-right
    • margin-top
  • [css-break-4] defines the following terms:
    • box-decoration-break
  • [CSS-CASCADE-4] defines the following terms:
    • computed value
    • inherit
    • inheritance
    • used value
  • [CSS-DISPLAY-3] defines the following terms:
    • block container
    • block formatting context
    • block-level
    • containing block
    • display type
    • flow
    • flow-root
    • in-flow
    • independent formatting context
    • initial containing block
    • inline
    • inline box
    • inline-block
    • inner display type
    • replaced element
    • run-in
  • [css-inline-3] defines the following terms:
    • root inline box
    • vertical-align
  • [css-masking-1] defines the following terms:
    • rect()
  • [css-overflow-3] defines the following terms:
    • scrollport
  • [css-ruby-1] defines the following terms:
    • ruby annotation container
    • ruby base container
  • [css-sizing-3] defines the following terms:
    • auto
    • automatic size
    • available block space
    • available inline space
    • available space
    • definite
    • fallback size
    • fit-content size
    • max size
    • max-content inline size
    • max-content size
    • min size
    • min-content inline size
    • min-content size
    • preferred size property
    • stretch-fit inline size
  • [CSS-TEXT-3] defines the following terms:
    • character
    • document white space
    • letter-spacing
    • text-align
    • text-indent
    • text-transform
    • typographic character unit
  • [CSS-VALUES-3] defines the following terms:
    • [css-values-4] defines the following terms:
      • css-wide keywords
      • font-relative lengths
      • |
    • [css-writing-modes-4] defines the following terms:
      • sideways-lr
      • sideways-rl
    • [CSS2] defines the following terms:
      • border-spacing
      • bottom
      • caption-side
      • clear
      • clip
      • display
      • float
      • height
      • left
      • line-height
      • max-height
      • max-width
      • min-height
      • min-width
      • page-break-inside
      • right
      • top
      • width
    • [CSS3-FONTS] defines the following terms:
      • font-feature-settings
      • font-variant
    • [css3-images] defines the following terms:
      • default object size
    • [CSS3-TEXT-DECOR] defines the following terms:
      • text-decoration
      • text-shadow
    • [CSS3BG] defines the following terms:
      • box-shadow
    • [CSS3COL] defines the following terms:
      • multi-column container
    • [CSS3PAGE] defines the following terms:
      • page progression
    • [HTML] defines the following terms:
      • body

    Направление и поворот элемента или текста CSS 3

    Поворот элемента средствами CSS 3

    Периодически web-дизайнеры сталкиваются с проблемой поворота какого-либо элемента. Благодаря средствам CSS 3 у этой задачи появилось довольно простое решение. Опять же, для кроссбраузерности нужно указать несколько свойств. Ниже приведён пример кода для поворота элемента на 90 градусов.

    Код CSS

    Выравнивание и направление текста средствами CSS 3

    Теперь подробнее о свойстве writing-mode. Оно позволяет задать выравнивание (слева — справа) текста элемента и, что самое интересное, направление (горизонтальное или вертикальное)! Смотрим и пробуем:

    lr-tb текст направлен слева направо.
    rl-tb текст направлен справа налево.
    tb-rl текст направлен вертикально и выравнивается по верхнему и правому краю.
    bt-rl текст направлен вертикально и выравнивается по нижнему и правому краю.
    tb-lr текст направлен вертикально и выравнивается по верхнему и левому краю.
    bt-lr текст направлен вертикально и выравнивается по нижнему и левому краю.
    На примере фразы текст идёт сюда можно рассмотреть действие CSS-свойств

    Код CSS

    Пример поворота текста на 90 градусов и выравнивания текста CSS 3

    Вот готовый пример. Текст поворачиваем на 90 градусов. Для этого достаточно создать блок с идентификатором rotateText и задать ему свойства CSS.

    Код HTML и CSS

    Пример поворота элемента на 90 градусов на CSS можно просмотреть по ссылке ниже.

    Демонстрация Скачать исходники
    Спасибо за внимание! И удачи в разработке дизайна!

    Оформление текста в CSS

    Положительное восприятие веб-сайта пользователем зависит не только от смыслового содержания текста, но и от его оформления.

    Существует вероятность, что человек не станет читать даже очень грамотно и хорошо написанный, но не оформленный или плохо оформленный текст, поэтому следует уделить особое внимание вопросу удобочитаемости.

    CSS предоставляет довольно обширные возможности, позволяющие кардинально изменить внешний вид вашего текста с помощью различных цветовых решений, размера строки и т.д.

    Визуальное оформление текста в CSS

    В CSS оформление текста осуществляется с помощью параметра text-decoration , который может принимать следующие значения:

    • blink — мерцающий текст;
    • none — значение по умолчанию, оформление отсутствует;
    • overline — линия расположена над текстом;
    • underline — подчеркнутый линией текст;
    • line-through — текст, зачеркнутый линией;
    • inherit — в данном случае text-decoration наследует значение родительского элемента.

    В окне браузера данный пример будет выглядеть следующим образом:

    Цвет текста в CSS

    Изменить цвет текста, расположенного внутри HTML элементов можно с помощью CSS свойства color .

    Способы задания могут быть следующими:

    • При помощи названия цвета (например, red, green, blue, white);
    • При помощи значения RGB (например, rgb(221,102,212));
    • При помощи шестнадцатеричного цветового значения (например, #ff00aa).

    Визуальное оформление, реализованное с помощью приведенного выше кода, выглядит следующим образом:

    Размер текста в CSS

    CSS свойство font-size позволяет задать размер текста.

    Единицами измерения могут быть:

    • Пиксели (например, 14px);
    • Пункты (например, 20pt);
    • Проценты (например, 50%);
    • Ключевые слова small, large и т.п.

    Визуальное представление приведенного выше кода выглядит следующим образом:

    Отступ текста в CSS

    Изначальная концепция HTML не предполагала отступы, выделяя абзацы лишь вертикальным расстоянием, а множество пробелов перед строкой браузер преобразует в один.

    Однако в CSS данная проблема решается с помощью свойства text-indent .

    Визуальное отображение кода:

    Жирный и наклонный текст в CSS

    С помощью атрибута CSS font-weight определяется жирность шрифта.

    Данный атрибут может принимать следующие значения:

    • normal — обычный;
    • lighter — более светлый;
    • bold — жирный;
    • от 100 до 900, где 100 — самый тонкий шрифт, а 900 — самый толстый.

    В браузере данный код выглядит следующим образом:

    Тень текста в CSS

    CSS свойство text-shadow позволяет задать тексту тень. Данное свойство содержит в себе целый перечень эффектов: цвет, смещение вправо, смещение вниз, радиус пятна тени.

    В том случае, если цвет тени не задан, используется цвет текста.

    Представленный выше код в браузере выглядит следующим образом:

    Выравнивание текста в CSS

    Выравнивание текста по горизонтали задаётся свойством text-align , которое может принимать следующие значения:

    • left — выравнивание по левому краю;
    • right — выравнивание по правому краю;
    • center — выравнивание по центру;
    • justify — выравнивание по всей ширине.

    С помощью свойства vertical-align выполняется выравнивание текста по вертикали.

    Данное свойство может принимать следующие значения:

    • baseline — выравнивание линии элемента по базовой линии родительского элемента;
    • middle — выравнивание средней элементной точки по базовой линии родительского элемента;
    • text-top — выравнивание верхней части элемента по верху шрифта родительского элемента;
    • top — выравнивание верха элемента по верхней части самого высокого элемента строки;
    • sub, super — отображение элемента в виде нижнего и верхнего индексов соответственно.

    Таким образом, возможности CSS позволяют произвести практически любые манипуляции с оформлением текста на веб-сайте для улучшения его восприятия пользователями.

    Расположение текста вертикально (CSS, HTML)

    Выводить на сайте текст вертикально можно в различных целях. Это может быть чисто дизайнерский ход и в таких случаях этот изыск реализуется простой картинкой. Думаю здесь все понятно, и рассматривать эту «технологию» не нужно.

    Но вот что делать, если оформление вертикального текста не изыск, а реальная необходимость? Чаще всего такая проблема возникает при необходимости разместить на сайте большую таблицу с кучей полей, содержащих несколько символов, но заголовками из нескольких слов.

    В CSS есть свойства transform и transform-origin, которые выполняют такую функцию. В реале же для разных браузеров были добавлены соответствующие стили (-ms-transform, -moz-transform, -ms-transform-origin, -moz-transform-origin).

    Применяя эти свойства, мы получим развернутый текст, но его расположение будет смещенным относительно исходного положения контейнера. Располагая одну строку вертикально не сложно настроить ее положение, дорабатывая смещением margin.

    Чуть сложнее задача становится, если нужно расположить близко стоящие колонки в таблице. Например, таблица:

    Заголовок 1 Заголовок 2 Заголовок 3 Заголовок 4 Заголовок 5
    1 2 3 4 5
    6 7 8 9 10

    При развороте текста, размеры содержащего контейнера по ширине и высоте становятся равными, а из-за ячейки с развернутым текстом не становятся меньше. Чтобы было проще управлять шириной ячеек и в итоге получить таблицу с узкими ячейками, стоит текст заключить во вложенные теги div, к которым и будет применяться стили вертикального текста. Здесь же задаем высоту ячейки с заголовками таблицы и ширину блока. Чтобы текст выводился в одну строку, добавляем запрет на перенос строки (white-space: nowrap).

    В зависимости от необходимого положения, смещение тоже придется подгонять вручную свойством margin.

    В итоге, получаем следующий код и результат:

    Text-orientation в CSS

    Изучив рубрику «CSS», вы узнаете, как с помощью каскадных таблиц стилей (CSS) можно легко управлять дизайном сайта и упростить создание самого сайта. Данная рубрика заменит Вам полноценный «учебник по CSS».

    Бесплатные уроки CSS для начинающих

    Вдобавок к текстовым урокам по каскадным таблицам стилей, в данном разделе также представлены полезные уроки CSS для начинающих. Все материалы изложены в максимально простой и понятной форме, поэтому даже абсолютный новичок сможет быстро освоить все премудрости создания красивого оформления сайтов.

    Забавные эффекты для букв

    Небольшой эффект с интерактивной анимацией букв.

    Implementing vertical text using CSS3 with cross-browser support.

    Text rotation with CSS3

    In this blog, We are going to see how to display text in the vertical orientation.

    Following two methods perform the Text rotation.

    1.Writing-mode:

    Writing-mode, which is currently in the CSS3 draft specification allows us to accomplish text rotation without using proprietary properties. Moreover it helps in effective future-proofing the concept. As a result more browsers adopt the CSS3 draft spec.

    Syntax:

    The above example shows the default value for writing-mode is the horizontal-tb.

    This is an impressive CSS technique that will subsequently work with all browsers as their CSS3 support gets better. As a matter of fact it is one of the noteworthy property among other properties of CSS3 in IE.

    The tb-rl | vertical-lr value tells the browser to display paragraphs with the text flowing from top to bottom or right to left as well as right to left. Surprisingly, IE is the only browser to support rotation of the text 90 degrees clockwise and aligning it to the Starting from IE5.5 and IE5.5+. In contrast IE8 adds further values by using the -ms extension.

    There are 4 values available from IE5.5+ and additional 4 values for IE8+ through the -ms extension.

    • horizontal-tb/lr-tb – It allows the content to flow horizontally from left to right and vertically from top to bottom.
    • rl-tb – Here the text flows from right to left and top to bottom.
    • tb-rl – The text flows vertically from top to bottom and right to left.
    • vertical-rl – It lets the content flow vertically from top to bottom and horizontally from right to left
    • vertical-lr – It lets the content flow vertically from top to bottom and horizontally from left to right.

    Example(Writing-mode):

    Result:

    In the above example, the entire text is rotated.
    In this case, we illustrate writing-mode and text-orientation property.

    Here we come across another CSS property called ‘text-orientation’.

    Text-orientation:

    The text-orientation property specifies the orientation of characters within the line of content. Therefore it only applies to vertical typographic modes.

    Syntax:

    Text-orientation – Default(initial) value is mixed.

    • Mixed – It is the initial(default) value. Scripts that are horizontal will only have their characters typeset sideways (rotated 90° clockwise) while vertical scripts will be typeset upright.
    • Upright – All text will be typeset upright with each character in its standard horizontal orientation.
    • Sideways– All text will be typeset sideways (rotated 90° clockwise), likewise in horizontal layout.

    You can refer the below link for brief information about the text-orientation.

    Example(Using text-orientation):

    Result:

    Text-orientation is not supported in IE(Internet Explorer).

    Text orientation in table cell?

    Is there a way to achieve (or a good
    reason not to) the ‘vertical text’ effect
    displayed here in the planetary labels..
    http://www.physci.org/test/graph/imgresize.html

    The page uses
    to break each letter
    of the word. I was sure there must be
    a CSS way to change the text orientation
    if a table cell, but a google of ciwah
    for orientation+td+text did not reveal
    any hits.

    Thoughts, comments, search terms?

    Is there a way to achieve (or a good
    reason not to) the ‘vertical text’ effect
    displayed here in the planetary labels..
    http://www.physci.org/test/graph/imgresize.html

    If a speech reader were to read the page, it would have to spell out the
    planets. You could use an aural CSS to solve that dilemma, however.

    Another problem I see is spider indexing.

    On Fri, 20 Feb 2004 14:46:07 GMT, Andrew Thompson
    wrote:

    Is there a way to achieve (or a good
    reason not to) the ‘vertical text’ effect
    displayed here in the planetary labels..
    http://www.physci.org/test/graph/imgresize.html
    If a speech reader were to read the page, it would have to spell out
    the planets. You could use an aural CSS to solve that dilemma,
    however.

    Thanks. I’ll have to look into that.
    I have only just introduced a print
    stylesheet, so new it is not even
    validated yet..
    [ oops, did I say that? ;-) ]
    Another problem I see is spider indexing.

    Oh, yeah, the proverbial ‘gonna’..
    I am gonna replace the less than
    helpful «» alt texts of the image bars
    to «label — value» (on the suggestion
    of folks right here, ..long, long ago —
    at least a month).

    OTOH the page will be generated
    dynamically (jsp), so there is not
    a great opportunity for spiders
    in any case ..unless they spider
    particular complete URL’s, which
    would form a self contained page..
    (wanders off ..muttering).

    Илон Маск рекомендует:  Показываем диалоговое окошко завершения работы системы
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